The 11th Scientific Conference with international attendance

Defense Resources Management in the 21st Century

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NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY „CAROL I”
REGIONAL DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT STUDIES



DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY


The 11th Scientific Conference with international attendance organized by the Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies

November 10th - 11th 2016, Braşov

NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY "CAROL I"
PUBLISHING HOUSE
BRASOV, 2016


Coordinators:
  • Assistant professor Maria Constantinescu, PhD.
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD.
Moderators:
  • Assistant professor Maria Constantinescu, PhD.
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD.
  • Junior Lecturer Vlad Ionuț DUMITRACHE, PhD.
  • Liliana FILIP, PhD. Candidate
Editor:
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD.
ISSN: 2248 - 2245 (CD-ROM)
ISSN: 2248 - 2385 (online)
Scientific Committee:

  • Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU
  • Teodor FRUNZETI
  • Emilian DOBRESCU
  • Ghiță BÂRSAN
  • Vasile BUCINSCHI
  • Mary S. McCULLY
  • Fahri ERENEL
  • Mustafa Kemal TOPCU
  • William BARTLETT
  • Eleftherios THALASSINOS
  • Jean-Pierre ALLEGRET
  • Elzbieta Jadwiga SRYMASISKA
  • Agnieszka BRELIK
  • Ramona RUPEIKA – APOGA
  • Ebru CAYMAZ
  • Ion ROCEANU
  • Stelian PÂNZARU
  • Virgil ENE-VOICULESCU
  • Vasile CĂRUŢAŞU
  • Liviu FILIP
  • Edith Mihaela DOBRESCU
  • Mărioara PATEȘAN
  • Anca DINICU
  • Ioan Gabriel POPA
  • Dumitru IANCU
  • Luminița GIURGIU
  • Daniel-Sorin CONSTANTIN
  • Dănuț-Eugeniu MOȘTEANU
  • Aurelian RAȚIU
  • Lucian ISPAS
  • Cezar VASILESCU
  • Florin Eduard GROSARU
  • Maria CONSTANTINESCU
  • Aura CODREANU
  • Brînduşa Maria POPA
  • Cristina ANTONOAIE
  • Vlad DUMITRACHE
Contents:
THE CONCEPTUAL VALIDITY OF HUMAN RIGHTS WITHIN THE GENERAL CONTEXT OF NORMATIVE LAYERING

Achimescu Lisa-Maria

University of Bucharest, PhD student Faculty of Law
Abstract
Our view on human rights is quite dependent of our perception of the international status quo in which such rights exist and evolve throughout decades. While so called civilized nations have complex legal systems in which issues such as the right to water or the right to internet are serious matters of discussions, one can be inclined to wonder if we are speaking the same language in countries such as Syria or Rwanda. The paper aims to analyze the intrinsic relationship between the development in the international arena of certain actors and how human rights are “a game of privilege”, made available only to the select few and how this affects international relations.
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PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

ANTONOAIE Cristina

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The concept of performance measurement is very clear: What gets measured gets done! As Peter Drucker said: “If you want it, measure it. If you can’t measure it, forget it.” Because we can manage only what we can measure, performance management as a distinct discipline it’s becoming very important today. Management is based on measurement, and all other organizational systems are dependent on the measurement system.
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TENDENCIES IN THE DEFENSE SPENDING IN THE NEW EUROPEAN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT

APOSTOL Cătălin

Independent researcher, Focsani, Romania
Abstract
The dissolution of the Soviet Union has given a way to a long period of peace and stability for the European nations. The European Union (EU) has been the key to the development. It has transformed the relations between our states, and the lives of our citizens. Our countries were committed to dealing peacefully with disputes and to cooperating through common European institutions. The United States has played a critical role in European integration and European security, in particular through North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The extensive reduction of defense expenditure has created serious difficulties for force development and preparation as well as the ability of the armed forces to deliver on expectations. But the ghosts of war in Europe are back.
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DEALING WITH MILITARY TOPICS IN ENGLISH: COMPLEMENTARY TEXTUAL INPUT TO FACILITATE THE ACQUISITION OF MILITARY TERMINOLOGY

BOERU Mariana

"Mircea cel Bătrân" Naval Academy - Constanța, Romania

APOSTOL-MATES Raluca

"Mircea cel Bătrân" Naval Academy - Constanța, Romania
Abstract
This paper intends to present an alternative approach to contextualizing new military lexical content that could enhance vocabulary retention and productive retrieval by boosting motivation through an affective response from the learners. It refers to including adapted textual/video/audio input that contextualizes our learners’ L1 professional linguistic reality right from the very presentation stage of the lesson. That is, in addition to using authentic/semi-authentic materials depicting the L2 reality (e.g. the British and the American armed forces), one can deliberately use adapted input in English, describing the learners’ professional reality as a means of introducing target vocabulary. The affective reaction prompted in the learners by the tangible outcome of being able to use military terminology when discussing one’s professional reality is a strong motivational factor and conduces to more efficient long-term lexical retention.
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”RULER OR LEADER?” – A PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

BANDRABURU Mihai Adrian

Founder of the ”Centrul tău de Consultanță”, Bacău, Romania, Psychologist
Abstract
Since 1990, Romania is doing substantial efforts to recover the gap of the management culture and leadership by importing new concepts and training programs for the management positions. The expected outcome of these training programs has been affected by the lack of the psychological informations of the romanian specific. As a concrete consequence, this data shortage has led to misunderstandings, lost resources or a fake belief that the training objectives have been reached. The cultural differences made the management roles and responsabilities to be understood and implemented in different ways. The present analysis is about the collective menthal, rulers and leaders and how appropiate is to replicate the western manager model into the romanian management culture.
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STRATEGIC AIRLIFT CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT

CIOBA Alin

Air Forces HQ, Romania
Abstract
In the modern world, strategic airlift – the capability for a fast transport of equipment and personnel by air over long distances to respond to military and humanitarian crises – is in high demand even in a financial environment who remains restrictive. The Strategic Airlift Capability is a innovation in the field of smart defence (NATO Concept) and pooling and sharing of defence capabilities 2 (EU Concept)-A Unique Model for Cooperation.
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THE COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY – EVOLUTIONS AND CHALLENGES

CONSTANTINESCU Maria

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The future of the Common Security and Defense Policy is closely linked to the future of the European Union itself. Although the birth of the EU is linked to economic cooperation and integration, its evolution over time has made it impossible to return to a simple economic multinational framework. The current changes in the security and defense environment have brought the issue of a European defense, the various ways it can be achieved and the degrees of integration and cooperation it requires, in the attention of the political decision makers and public opinion. This paper intends to analyze the history and evolution of the EU CSDP concept and to outline some of the most serious challenges it faces in the volatile current security climate.
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CORRELATES AND FACTORS OF DECISION MAKING IN MANAGEMENT

DĂMĂȘARU Costin

National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Management/Bucharest, Romania

CRĂCIUN Andra

University of Bucharest, Psychology Department, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The present paper proposes a specific view regarding the process of making decisions in the managerial context. Specifically, we intend to identify the impact of several correlates and specific factors upon different styles of decision making (namely ”Thoroughness”, ”Control”, ”Hesitancy”, ”Social resistance”, ”Optimising”, ”Principled” and ”Instinctiveness”, as identified by applying ”The Decision Making Styles Questionnaire”). Our main hypotheses state that there should be a difference between managers and general (employed) population regarding dominant decision making styles and that several variables (such as sex, years of professional experience, sel-efficacy, level of perceived stress, the completeness of information regarding the situation which requires a decision and it’s difficulty) play specific roles as factors in decision making. We propose that our results should be useful in recruitment processes, talent management and in the development of professional coaching programs which focus on decision-making
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MODERN PERSPECTIVES REGARDING ORGANIZATIONAL RESILIENCE

DĂMĂȘARU Costin

National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Management/Bucharest, Romania

FILIP Liliana

National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Management/Bucharest, Romania

CRĂCIUN Andra

University of Bucharest/ Bucharest/ Romania
Abstract
Resilience stands at the moment as a concept of increasing applicability in several research domains, all having in common the idea of analyzing the ways in which a system succeeds in remaining healthy, strong or upstanding. Whether we refer to domains such as mental health, ecology, biology or economy, resilience describes the phenomenon which allows a system – whether biological, human, or organizational – to withstand difficulty, to survive and grow while facing adversity. Hence, the present paper proposes to reflect, through a theoretical review recent works in the field, upon the organizational resilience. We intend to clarify conceptual aspects regarding the proposed subject and to draw several directions of resilience-enhancing practices that can be approached by organizational structures in order to maintain their best functioning levels.
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CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS IN DEFENSE SOFTWARE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT MANAGEMENT

DEMİR Kadir Alpaslan

Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Istanbul, Turkey, Ph.D., Assistant Program Manager

CAYMAZ Ebru

Marmara University, Department of Organization and Management, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract
Scale and complexity of defense systems is increasing exponentially. Consequently, defense project schedules are long and system development costs are skyrocketing. Today, almost all large-scale defense systems are software and information technology intensive systems. Software and information systems project development in a defense context has domain-specific challenges in addition to existing challenges of large-scale system developments. Therefore, defense software and information systems project management is challenging. Current performance in many large-scale defense projects is low. Government reports list large-scale defense acquisition projects among high-risk projects. Experts point out the need for innovations on many areas of systems engineering, software engineering, and project management to successfully build large-scale systems and manage the development of these systems. According to the experts, incremental improvements will not be enough. Recent defense project experiences support the claim of these experts. Identifying the challenges and related research areas is the first step in attacking the defense acquisition problem. In this study, we identify the current major research areas in defense software and information systems project management.
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THE ASIA-EUROPE MEETING - ASEM

DOBRESCU Emilian

Institute of National Economy, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania, Titular member of Romanian Academy of Science People from Romania, Scientific Secretary of Section of Economic Sciences, Law and Sociology, SR grade I, Professor PhD.

DOBRESCU Edith Mihaela

Institute for World Economy, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Summits of the Countries in Asia and Europe (The Asia-Europe Meeting - ASEM) is a year informal process of Dialogue and Cooperation Bringing together the 28 member states of the European Union (EU), two Countries that has not EU members, the Union Europe itself, with 21 Asian Countries, together with the secretariat of the Association of South East Asian Cooperation (ASEAN). Level Dialogue ASEM has three pillars: political, economic and cultural, with the pursuit of Objectives Defining the relations between the two continental Regions of the world in the spirit of mutual respect and Equality to all our partners involved action. At summit meetings held Attended (in alphabetical order): Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Korea, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Russian Federation, Philippines, Finland, France Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, United Kingdom, Mongolia, Myanmar, Netherlands, Norway, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Romania, the ASEAN Secretariat, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Hungary, the European Union and Vietnam. Coordinators for Asia is Malaysia and Mongolia, and for Europe - European External Action Service and the country holding the rotating presidency of the Union.
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THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION WHEN DEALING WITH EMERGENCY SITUATIONS AND DISASTERS

DRĂGUȚ Andrei Eugen

University of Bucharest/ Bucharest/ Romania
Abstract
It is a well-known fact that when managing emergency situations and disasters there are many aspects to deal with, one of which is proper and efficient communication. This article stresses the importance of communication both when comes to preparing and dealing with emergency situations and disaster response. Communication can play a major role in making the public aware of possible risks and the need for adequate individual and community preparation, as well it may help inform the public on how to act, what steps everybody should take and what are the safe places after a disaster has struck.
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THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATION IN LABOR FORCE MANAGEMENT. STUDIES FROM THE EU-27 DATABASE

DUMITRACHE Vlad

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania

RIMBU Gabriela

ULBS, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
The European Union has been dealing with an increasing unemployment in several member states. There is a shortage in the demand for labor. National and EU institution try to solve these challenges by different means. The appliance of cultural organization techniques from management theory is such a need. The purpose of this paper is to study the attempts of EU member states in creating a more efficient and effective institutionalized system for the labor market using cultural organization as a mean to decrease unemployment, increase the demand of labor and better placement for the European workforce.
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ANTIPIRACY OPERATIONS AT SEA THE COSTS OF PIRACY IN THE GULF OF ADEN AND SOMALI BASIN

EGOROV Mihai

Mass-Media Group of the Romanian Naval Forces
Abstract
Approximately 80% of world trade currently travels by sea, representing around 93,000 merchant vessels, 1.25 million seafarers, and almost six billion tons of cargo. When appear some disturbing factors, that affect the transfer of goods and the free transit on sea routes for civilian ships involved in trading, disorders of all specific processes are inevitable, starting from the delays to financial losses, lack of confidence and not the least occurrence of critical conditions that can culminate in life lost. About maritime piracy it was written very much, there have been made statistics, but it has not managed so far to put all these documents in a white book of piracy. The data presented in this paper are the results of corroborating statements transmitted by NATO, EU and the organizations involved in analyzing this phenomenon.
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THE FUTURE WAR– A CONTEMPORARY MILITARY PHENOMENON IN THE LIGHT OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

GEORGESCU Ștefan Gabriel

Graduate of Postgraduate training and development program continues: "Critical Infrastructure Protection" Carol I National Defense University, Faculty of Command and Staff, Department of Strategic Leadership, Bucharest, Romania University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The idea of developing this article started from the need to present a unified and coherent conception of the fundamental problem of informational war as contemporary military phenomenon. In this article we will present topics such as: the emergence and development of future concepts of war; features contemporary military phenomenon from the perspective of critical infrastructure; War concept works type social conflict. Capable of international bodies (UN, EU, NATO, OSCE, CSTO, SCO, etc.) to face new challenges such as network warfare, transnational organized crime, terrorism information, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to name just a few of the great dangers that could throw humanity into chaos and anarchy? Old tools can be effective (the system of international humanitarian law, intelligence, counterintelligence and security) to restore peace and prosperity of the peoples and nations of the world? Here are a few questions that bothers civil society alongside community politicians, the military, and not least the secret frontline protagonists. Of course every interrogation in part could be a separate research and meditation. A treat them together, mean an effort synthesis of all that is, or should be linked to the issue, so complex security. The approach is circumscribed efforts that have been made in recent years to develop a new conception of theoretical and practical future war as a phenomenon of the contemporary military and valorization of designed, they play an extremely important role in informing, but also in the formation of which it intends to deepen further this area.
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TERRORISM IS NOT RANDOM NOR CHAOTIC

GHEORGHE Florina Daniela

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Amid the multiplications of terrorist attacks in several areas of the Globe, it is important to understand the processes and conditions that lead to such events. Although they might seem random, we must take into account the Aristotle’s concept according to which “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. In complex adaptive systems, a relatively small number of players react to a set of changeable, dynamic, situational factors. Furthermore, they are not repeated in any known pattern and cannot be malleable in a predictive analysis. Analyzing terrorist networks as complex systems, this paper examines the general framework looking to understand their interlocking elements.
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An Operative Area for Amphibious Ships: Fighting Piracy

GÜNORAL Alper

Strategic Research Institute, Defence Resource Management, Turkey

ERENEL Fahri

Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey
Abstract
Piracy has always been a big problem for sea routes. Several years ago the Gulf of Eden was the high risk area for mariners. United Nations task groups, big war ships took charge for maritime security and 2016 became a quieter year in that area. But piracy never diminished globally despite total efforts and millions of dollars spent. The new High Risk Areas seem to be Gulf of Guinea and around Malacca Strait. Malacca Strait is also a narrower and risky area for big ships. This article compares different kinds of warships, to offer a new way of fighting against piracy, while reducing costs for flag states and increasing effectiveness
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CONSIDERATION ABOUT THE UTILITY OF USING THE TOPSIS METHOD IN DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

IANCU Dumitru

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
The decisions are the trigger of all human action and calls for choice optimal variant based on multiple criteria or more decision-makers. TOPSIS method leads to facilitate this process and generate a solution for final decision-maker closer to the reality of context. The complexity of phenomena that NATO faces in the current period, especially in the next, require to conjugate the ideas of all allies to identify the most appropriate solutions for the future. Why is this approach necessary? The direction in which Alliance is moving, or the activities that will be held by it, depend on the interests and potential of each country to support it.
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ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

MUSCALU Emanoil

“Lucian Blaga” University/ Sibiu/ Romania

HALMAGHI Elisabeta-Emilia

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
Essential structural component of sustainable development, economic dimension manifests itself as a global, universal, unitary, the interrelations between subsystems components: national economies, global division of labor, international economic relations, world economy. They have the ability to create a new framework for sustainable development causing the same time, structural changes in social and environmental areas.
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THE FROZEN CONFLICTS STRATEGY THE RUSSIAN INDIRECT APPROACH TOWARD USSR SECURITY STUDIES - THE CRIMEA CASE

NĂFORNIȚĂ Florin

Independent researcher /Constanta/ Romania
Abstract
Starting from the main characteristics of frozen conflicts, this paper assesses the Ukraine crisis, analyzing the main drivers and key factors that underlie the conflict situation. In order to achieve a complete picture, these factors cover the main instruments that Russia managed to drive the crisis: the exceptional status of Crimea, the settlement of Russian Black Sea Fleet naval base on Crimea, the Russian Information Campaign, and the energy weapon by Russia. Eventually, some recommendation for the role of U.S. military will conclude, in order to frame a desired end-state for regional and international détente.
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IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK IN ORGANIZATIONS

IRINA Elena-Roxana

House of Educational Staff Neamț Neamț County, Romania
Abstract
Organizations are much more likely to perform well, when their employees work as a team. Good teamwork creates synergy, where the combined effect of the team is greater than the sum of individual efforts. According to specialists, teamwork in organization involve communication between employees, share responsibilities, ideas, active listening, in accomplishing the task. It is important to bond one with one another, for improving the relations between the employees. In common tasks it is important to work together, because cooperation to a common task is a chance for the new employees to learn from the other with more experience, for new acquire skills.
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MODELS OF COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ON THE STATE LEVEL. COMMON ELEMENTS AND CHARACTERISTIC LANDMARKS

IVAN Loredana

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
A competitive environment allows the market to operate efficiently; nevertheless, enhancing competitive performance throughout the economic environment means monitoring the economic relations and adjusting them by using public policies. Countries are forced to constantly adapt their economies, a reality which generates a permanent need for updated and relevant information. In order to prevent and combat the undesirable effects of the competition that characterizes a global market, countries with large economies rely on systems that help them improve the competitiveness of their economy; in the context, important tools seem to be data and information collection, processing and analysis. In the post-war era, some countries such as Japan, France, the USA and Great Britain chose to develop and implement power strategies, which allow them to better cope with the challenges associated with the worldwide economic competitiveness. On the other hand, many of the ex-Soviet countries still have neither national programs nor significant initiatives oriented towards the good-practices passed on by most of the economic developed countries. Intern political competition, still largely spread within these countries, hindered the shaping of essential concerns that could place resources in the process of framing real systems, aiming at enhancing economic competitiveness. Moreover, due to a lack of strong administrative capacity and a tendency towards corruption, visible especially among civil servants, during the last decades major errors have been committed at an intern economic level. As a consequence, this deepened even more the gap between these countries and the ones that had understood what weapons need to be used in order to conquer territories and people’s minds.
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INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN THE MILITARY REALM – THE ROLE OF STEREOTYPES1

KIS Alexandru

NATO HUMINT Centre of Excellence - Oradea, Romania
Abstract
Intercultural communication refers to the study of the dynamic interactional patterns between people of different cultures, an aspect which is very important within the military realm – being it the interaction between members of different armies acting within combined operations, or soldiers interacting with local population in theatres of operations. In the design of intercultural communication, stereotypes originate from social categorization and nourish preconceptions that can critically influence the desired effects of different activities carried out by military. The paper provides arguments for including the study of stereotypes within the cultural awareness training in the military at all levels, as enabler for better understanding the interpersonal communication mechanisms.
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THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE AND THE SECURITY CHALLENGES IN THE WIDER BLACK SEA REGION. PRESENT AND FUTURE

LUCINESCU Ioan Codruţ

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
As a strategic intersection connecting the Middle East, Eurasia and Europe, the Black Sea Region appears to be one of the world’s critical crossroads. The Ukrainian crisis has prompted deep concerns among Atlantic community, shedding a new light on the strategic relevance of the Black Sea region to Europe's security. Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014 has furthermore demonstrated the poor degree of readiness of the euro-Atlantic community to deal with asymmetric challenges and covert actions. Washington, whose interests have been defined by State Secretary Hillary Clinton, as turned toward the Pacific, aimed to operate a historical shift from the focus on the defense of the Old Continent to the competition with China over the Asia-Pacific stage. The Ukrainian crisis and the subsequent worsening of Russia-West relations is nevertheless likely to re attract Washington in the region. The study aims to address the core issues of security in the Wider Black Sea Region, by focusing on the regional changes determined by the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Also, the use of hard power as a defining instrument of the Russian foreign policy imposes the need for NATO, and implicitly Romania, to adapt its security policies in accordance with the new security challenges.
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MAIN DIRECTIONS OF THE STATE POLICY ON INCREASING THE SUSTANAIBLITY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY DURING SPECIAL PERIOD

MAMMADOV Bahruz

Asst. Prof. of Military Academy of Armed Forces/Deputy Head of Department of Ministry of Economy/Baku/Azerbaijan

TALIBOV Aziz

Professor of Military Academy of Armed Forces/ Ministry of Defense/Baku/Azerbaijan
Abstract
The increasing the sustainability of the national economy during special period is one of the key elements of the state defense policy. Therefore, this article explores the directions of developing state policy and the regulation of its monitoring, forecasting, planning, control, economic, legal and institutional management.
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DESIGN CONCEPTS AND PREDICTION FOR A RADIO WIDEBAND HF NETWORKS

MANIU Valentin

"Decebal” Training Center for Communications and Information Tehnology / Sibiu /Romania
Abstract
The standard MIL-STD-188-110C contains an appendix (Appendix D) defining a new family of wideband HF data waveforms supporting bandwidths from 3 kHz to 24 kHz in increments of 3 kHz. This family of waveforms extends the high performance serial tone modem technology of the MIL-STD-188-110B standard to wider bandwidths and much higher data rates, allowing users the option of selecting the bandwidth and modulation so as to optimize modem performance under the prevailing HF channel characteristics. However, fully realizing the potential of these new waveforms will require enhanced capabilities in other elements of an HF communications system, notably including a new ‘Fourth Generation’ (‘4G’) Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) capability. This paper discusses requirements and design objectives for such technique, design concepts, and prediction tools for reliable frequency management.
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CO-SITE INTERFERENCE IN RADIO NETWORKS

MANIU Valentin

"Decebal” Training Center for Communications and Information Tehnology / Sibiu /Romania
Abstract
The radio spectrum is a limited national resource, essential for some governmental applications and increasingly important for a series of non-governmental applications. RF co-site interference has been around since the advent of wireless communications equipment and the problem is getting worse as the need for new RF/Microwave communication systems grow. It has become more important than ever to have an understanding of RF co-site interference, what the terms mean and what tools are available to address the problem. One thing is certain; RF co-site interference is not going away and will become worse over time as new wireless systems proliferate the environment. The article addresses the issue of radio resource allocation when using a large number of emission and reception sources for means of communication and non-communication in a small area. Locating several emission sources in the same site leads to different types of disturbing signals: emissions outside the bandwidth, harmonics and intermodulation. The article categorizes and describes these sources, presents the results of measurements distinguishing them, as well as the results of implementing some protective measures.
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ENERGY SECURITY. BLACK SEA – CASPIAN SEA CORRIDOR

NEAG Mihai

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

HALMAGHI Elisabeta-Emilia

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
Amid divergent economic and strategic interests of the great regional and international powers, energy security remains a complex problem which requires pragmatic solutions tailored to the needs of security. Stability and economic prosperity on the Black Sea - Caspian Sea corridor can not be understood and strengthened but in relation to the stability and prosperity of the states in this area, but also in proximity. Analysing power relations and conflict developments in this region, but also those in the surrounding areas, it can be noticed that the instability of part of the system is transmitted in it, and the consequences are serious, varied and difficult to manage.
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F-16 AS A TOOL IN US FOREIGN POLICY. SKETCHES ABOUT RIMLAND DIPLOMACY

PETRE Silviu-Valentin

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
United States armed forces are in full process or renewing their paraphernalia in order to cope to a polycentric XXI century environment. As some items are tossed away while other like F-35 promise to keep the edge, older equipment is transformed in bargain chip and tool of foreign policy. Such is the case with the F-16 jet, given to friendly countries to deepen alliances. This paper tries to find patterns of US military diplomacy engaging the writings of Nicholas Spykman and Karl Polanyi.
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ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MANAGEMENT PREREQUISITES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

POPA Brindusa

Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
In a highly competitive global economy, it is becoming more and more obvious that the real organizational competitive advantage is represented by the employees. The organization’s members are the most important assets, and the manner they are organized and mobilized depends on the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitudes and behavior of the people in management structures. Management structuctures determine the direction of organizational activities in order to achieve the goals and objectives in the most efficient way, without affecting the quality of results. However, most of the time, organizational success does not depend only on the education and skills of the employers, but also on the way the employees perceive their relationship with the organization.
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CONTROL OF KEY MARITIME STRAITS - CHINA'S GLOBAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

POPESCU Alba Iulia Catrinel

Independent researcher, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
On the 28th of March 2015 the Chinese government published "VISION AND ACTIONS ON BUILDING the NEW SILK ROAD, jointly the ECONOMIC AND 21ST - CENTURY MARITIME SILK ROAD"1. This document signifies China's decision to become a global hegemon. This Chinese African - Eurasian "silk bridge" strategy redirected geopolitical analysts’ attention away from another Beijing's strategic objectives: control of key maritime straits, especially those featuring "maritime chokepoints", where concentrations of commercial and military naval routes flow. Which are the main maritime straits covered by the Chinese "offensive"? What are the geostrategic implications of this approach?
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THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM- AN ALTERNATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH TO THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY

POPESCU Anamaria

Independent researcher
Abstract
The actual multi-headed Intelligence System, even if grouped under National Intelligence Community (NIC) umbrella, presents dis-functionalities. Why? Because each member feeds ready made products according to its own system objectives, means and vision. Those are not necessary compatible with the other systems needs, and they require additional processing to be used. Decision process is difficult, sometimes impossible. All Intelligence Systems overlap on certain areas and block change in all of them. Each system has its own best capabilities in different areas. This issue generates either confusions, either lack of responsibility or even become public battle fields (the worst manifestation of the relationships between systems, generating a loss of credibility) All systems have the same mission: to defend national assets (resources, people and values). All systems use their own resources (partly based on same technologies), sometimes for the same purpose, and end up with different conclusions, due to experience, perspective and authority. The waist in all kinds of resources is huge. Grouped, they might be much more insightful, powerful, and successful. But each system developed the „all-mighty” ego that should be overcome for the national interest. Other reasons block also the fusion.
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THE SEMIOSPHERE OF ADVERTISING AND CULTURE

POPESCU Maria-Magdalena

"Carol I" National Defense University, Romania
Abstract
Should we take for granted that semiosis stands for any form of activity, conduct and process that involves signs and the meaning they produce, then it comes right to say that semiosis is to be identified with any form of publicity and advertising. Moreover, advertising is as ubiquitous as the individuals themselves and as technological progress outputs. In this context, Lotman’s concepts of semiosphere (2005) encompass the meaning and the effect, the signs and audience, along with Bandura’s triadic view on the continuum between the human, his existence, his behaviour and the context in which he reacts. In the light of all the above stated, the present paper comes to explore whether advertising the same product or service in various cultures needs to be tackled differently or whether slight background differences change the meaning due to cultural variations. Can the same advertisement be advanced interculturally? This is an endeavour in finding out whether Krylov’s fable (1946) about the pearl “What they don’t understand they regard as trivial” still stands in terms of intercultural advertising or whether the promotion goes ahead unspoilt due to the intrinsic features of the product. Are the psychological mechanisms beyond the advertising product solely responsible for the decoding of meaning or is it Badura’s triad at stake? These and other aspects are to be explained in the current paper.
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CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING INFORMATION WARFARE AND COMPETITIONS IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT

RAICU Constantin

Independent researcher / Brasov / Romania
Abstract
The idea of warfare using information as a weapon is not new. Yet, many experts from different countries consider information warfare more and more actual, due to the evolution of information technology. The recent attention given to information warfare does not mark the birth of a new form of conflict. Rather, it marks a significant change in the implications of an old one. This is the main idea that embraces the approach of the present paper. By comparing different views on information warfare, through the evolution of global security environment, we are better able to understand from the opposite perspectives which are the security issues that challenge the actors or might become opportunities for them to prevail. Also, hybrid warfare is equally one of the major challenges that nations face in current times and therefore it must be considered increasingly more. Moreover, information warfare implications in the current global security environment can be better understood to the extent that it is observed and analyzed in the context of recent conflicts.
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TRANSFORMATION AND ADAPTATION – A PERMANENT FEATURE OF NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

ROHOZNEANU Sorin

Defence Policy and Planning Department/ Bucharest/ Romania
Abstract
This paper examines the main transformation and adaptation measures taken by NATO between its establishment in 1949 and with a view to the upcoming Warsaw Summit in 2016. NATO has been engaged in continuous transformation for many years to ensure that it has the policies, capabilities and structures required to deal with current and future challenges, including the collective defence of its members. With Allied forces militarily engaged across several continents, the Alliance needs to ensure that its armed forces remain modern, deployable, interoperable and sustainable. The changes in the security environment have forced the Alliance to adapt continuously. The effects of financial crisis, reset the relationship with Russia, NATO's nuclear status, creating anti-missile shield, NATO commitment in Afghanistan, new threats like cyber-attacks and hybrid warfare, the ambitions of international terrorist groups, the emergence of new players in the world are the main factors that gave rise to the need to transform the Alliance to ensure an adequate response. I do consider the subject of major relevance today as well as in the next future, and the paper could provide a ground for further analyses and improvements to be useful for those interested in understanding how and why the Alliance resisted over time and what still needs to be done to remain relevant as a political-military Alliance.
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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION

RUS Amelia

Incipio Vita Arad County, Romania
Abstract
In an organization formal and informal communication is used. Organizational communication has the function to inform, persuade and promote goodwill; the flow of communication could be formal or informal. The concept of bounded rationality which challenged assumptions about the perfect rationality of communication participants was introduced by Herbert A. Simon.
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CIO, RESPONSIBILITIES AND CHALLENGES

SHERAZ Azhar Ali

Pakistan Air Force
Abstract
Chief information officer (CIO) is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals. In simple words he is bridge between the management and technology. The chief information officer at one organization could have an entirely different set of responsibilities from the CIO of any other organization keeping in view the tasks and roles. However, in all the cases, the job of CIO's is to innovate, collaborate, balance the IT budget and motivate IT staff.
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ISLAMIC STATE ONLINE PROPAGANDA

Stefanescu Daniela

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The Islamic State use of social media and its social media presence have become the 21st century main terrorist threat. The organization reached a meteoric rise worldwide by its impressive and well-planned multilingual social media campaign which included videos, pictures, magazines, Islamic nasheeds, and the widespread use of social platforms, especially Twitter and Telegram. Thus, the Islamic State transformed itself into a global brand synonymous with terrorism and Salafist Islam. This paper will analyze the Islamic State online strategy and discourse in general as well as its strategic goals, target audience, and related social media to underline the professional and calculated social media information campaign of the Islamic State, which resemble very much to political PR campaigns.
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EUROPEAN UNION’S RESPONSE TO THE RECENT SECURITY CHALLENGES

Tache Ileana

Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business Admnistration/ Brasov/ Romania

Raileanu-Szeles Monica

Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business Admnistration/ Brasov/ Romania

Ion Madalin Sebastian

“Lucian Blaga” University/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
This paper examines the most recent security challenges for the European Union (EU) – a field of external EU policies which, unlike other areas like trade, enlargement, neighborhood policy, development assistance and humanitarian aid, is not yet a deeply integrated process. The emerging security issues are scrutinized from a policy perspective, highlighting some of the key issues raised in the contemporary literature. They are also analyzed with a view of their intractability and challenges for the relevance of the pacifist principles promoted by the EU. We attentively consider EU’s efforts to adapt to the fluid, evolving security agenda of the last years and the mixed record in confronting the Arab spring, the Iran nuclear ambitions, the Ukrainian crisis, the EU’s fight against the Islamic State (ISIS) and the refugee crisis. Each case presented requires reexamining current EU strategy and identifying alternative strategies for assuring security in the EU.
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AN EVALUATION ON F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER: TURKISH PERSPECTIVE

Şengöz Murat

Turkish General Staff

Topcu Mustafa Kemal

Defense Management Consultancy
Abstract
Turkey as well as Italy, the UK, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Australia, and Denmark is a member of consortium to produce next generation fighter. Since JSF as the future king of aerospace fighters enhances Turkey’s aerospace competition, Turkey attaches great importance to the program. Because the program is also promising to promote domestic base as well as to create employment, improve trade balance, promote innovation, and provide off-set. To this end, the study aims at revealing issues regarding political, economic and social grounds.
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PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS

VASILIU-MOISE Florentina

House of Educational Staff Neamț Neamț County, Romania
Abstract
Performance management is focused on the employees, on the team from the organization, and the organization as a whole. A good performance management help your organization raise individual performance, foster ongoing employee and supervisor development, and increase overall organizational effectiveness. Some proponents argue that there is a clear and immediate correlation between using performance management programs or software and improved business and organizational results. Organizations typically manage employee performance over a formal twelve month period.
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